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Thursday, December 15, 2005 

Patriot Act Provision

An interesting artical via The Counterterrorisim blog.

Cigarette Smuggling & Meth Possession Provisions Certainly Belong in USA PATRIOT Act
Yesterday, Declan McCullough, a highly respected expert on the tech industry, criticized provisions in the PATRIOT Act conference report which would increase federal prosecutions for cigarette smuggling and increase penalties for possession of methamphetamine. He termed those and several other provisions "bizarre." Actually, cigarette smuggling and meth possession have a lot to do with terrorist methods, and the provisions addressing them certainly belong in the PATRIOT Act conference report.

Smuggling of various commodities, including cigarettes, has been an important means of terrorist funding around the world, as testified to before a Senate committee this summer by former Contributing Expert Matthew Levitt, now a senior official in the U.S. Treasury Department. One of the most important terrrorism prosecutions ever in the U.S. occurred in Charlotte, NC, over a Hezbollah interstate smuggling ring. Quoting from Matthew's Senate testimony:

In June 2002, the Hamoud brothers were convicted of a variety of charges including funding the activities of Hezbollah from the proceeds of an interstate cigarette smuggling ring. Seven other defendants pled guilty to a variety of charges stemming from this case, including conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists, cigarette smuggling, money laundering and immigration violations.47 Mohammed Hassan Dbouk and his brother-in-law, Ali Adham Amhaz, ran the Canadian portion of this network under the command of Haj Hasan Hilu Laqis (Hezbollah's chief military procurement officer).

As testified to at that hearing and elsewhere, terrorists are involved in smuggling anything that makes money, including drugs such as pseudoepedrine and meth. A story today in the Venezuelan press reports the destruction of a huge cocaine lab in Columbia jointly operated by the FARC and AUC terrorist groups. As a former Administrator of the DEA testified in 2002,

Terrorism and drug trafficking organizations are often linked in a mutually beneficial relationship by money, geography, and tactical lawlessness. Drug trafficking provides terrorists with a steady revenue source to finance their operations. Twelve of the 28 organizations the Department of State has identified as "foreign terrorist organizations" have benefited from the illegal drug trade, including the Al Qaeda, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL), the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, and the Lebanon-based Hizballah.
Considering the near-epidemic of meth addiction in parts of the U.S., a provision increasing penalties for possession is relevant to the PATRIOT Act in order to stop terrorist funding.

MORE ON THE PATRIOT ACT: http://www.epic.org/privacy/terrorism/hr3162.html

Showdown Coming on USA PATRIOT Act and Expiration Is a Victory for Terrorists
Sixteen provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act expire at the end of this month, and Congress has been debating, drafting, and voting on the future of the provisions for months. The two top Republican lawmakers, Rep. James Sensenbrenner and Sen. Arlen Specter, have agreed to a conference report, and the House will vote on the measure on Wednesday. Here are highlights in the report from the House Judiciary Committee website, where you can see the text of the report and more highlights:

• Permanently tears down “the wall” that had prevented information sharing between law enforcement and the intelligence community
• Makes permanent 14 of the 16 expiring PATRIOT Act provisions
• Places a 4-year sunset on Sections 206 and 215 of PATRIOT Act and the “lone wolf”
terrorist provision
• Expands and make permanent the law prohibiting material support to terrorists
• Enhances penalties for attacks against railroad and mass transit
• Makes certain air piracy crimes subject to the death penalty
• Establishes a judicial review process for a search of records under Section 215 that authorizes the judge to set aside, modify, or affirm a search order that has been challenged

Although the House has made dozens of changes in its draft to move towards the Senate (i.e., the 4-year sunset on controversial sections), a number of Republican Senators and Sen. Leahy, the leading Democrat on the Senate Judiciary Committee, have threatened a filibuster, which could lead to expiration of the all 16 provisions.

We can't risk sending a message of retreat and defeat to the terrorists or to our allies by resurrecting the "wall" between intel and law enforcement and reducing the tools which have been available to law enforcement for 4 years. I don't pretend that the compromise is perfect, and Congress can and should continue its oversight of the actual results. But to date, the Inspector General of the Justice Department has reported no abuses of the Act; indeed, FBI agents are compaining that DOJ supervisors don't allow them to fully employ the Act. The time for final action is here, and Congress needs to pass the conference report on the USA PATRIOT Act.


To deter and punish terrorist acts in the United States and around the world, to enhance law enforcement investigatory tools, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

(a) SHORT TITLE- This Act may be cited as the `Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001'. (b) TABLE OF CONTENTS- The table of contents for this Act is as follows:
Sec. 1. Short title and table of contents.
Sec. 2. Construction; severability.
Sec. 101. Counterterrorism fund.
Sec. 102. Sense of Congress condemning discrimination against Arab and Muslim Americans.
Sec. 103. Increased funding for the technical support center at the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Sec. 104. Requests for military assistance to enforce prohibition in certain emergencies.
Sec. 105. Expansion of National Electronic Crime Task Force Initiative.
Sec. 106. Presidential authority.
Sec. 201. Authority to intercept wire, oral, and electronic communications relating to terrorism.
Sec. 202. Authority to intercept wire, oral, and electronic communications relating to computer fraud and abuse offenses.
Sec. 203. Authority to share criminal investigative information.
Sec. 204. Clarification of intelligence exceptions from limitations on interception and disclosure of wire, oral, and electronic communications.
Sec. 205. Employment of translators by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Sec. 206. Roving surveillance authority under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978.
Sec. 207. Duration of FISA surveillance of non-United States persons who are agents of a foreign power.
Sec. 208. Designation of judges.
Sec. 209. Seizure of voice-mail messages pursuant to warrants.
Sec. 210. Scope of subpoenas for records of electronic communications.
Sec. 211. Clarification of scope.
Sec. 212. Emergency disclosure of electronic communications to protect life and limb.
Sec. 213. Authority for delaying notice of the execution of a warrant.
Sec. 214. Pen register and trap and trace authority under FISA.
Sec. 215. Access to records and other items under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.
Sec. 216. Modification of authorities relating to use of pen registers and trap and trace devices.
Sec. 217. Interception of computer trespasser communications.
Sec. 218. Foreign intelligence information.
Sec. 219. Single-jurisdiction search warrants for terrorism.
Sec. 220. Nationwide service of search warrants for electronic evidence.
Sec. 221. Trade sanctions.
Sec. 222. Assistance to law enforcement agencies.
Sec. 223. Civil liability for certain unauthorized disclosures.
Sec. 224. Sunset.
Sec. 225. Immunity for compliance with FISA wiretap.
Sec. 301. Short title.
Sec. 302. Findings and purposes.
Sec. 303. 4-year congressional review; expedited consideration.
Subtitle A--International Counter Money Laundering and Related Measures
Sec. 311. Special measures for jurisdictions, financial institutions, or international transactions of primary money laundering concern.
Sec. 312. Special due diligence for correspondent accounts and private banking accounts.
Sec. 313. Prohibition on United States correspondent accounts with foreign shell banks.
Sec. 314. Cooperative efforts to deter money laundering.
Sec. 315. Inclusion of foreign corruption offenses as money laundering crimes.
Sec. 316. Anti-terrorist forfeiture protection.
Sec. 317. Long-arm jurisdiction over foreign money launderers.
Sec. 318. Laundering money through a foreign bank.
Sec. 319. Forfeiture of funds in United States interbank accounts.
Sec. 320. Proceeds of foreign crimes.
Sec. 321. Financial institutions specified in subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31, United States code.
Sec. 322. Corporation represented by a fugitive.
Sec. 323. Enforcement of foreign judgments.
Sec. 324. Report and recommendation.
Sec. 325. Concentration accounts at financial institutions.
Sec. 326. Verification of identification.
Sec. 327. Consideration of anti-money laundering record.
Sec. 328. International cooperation on identification of originators of wire transfers.
Sec. 329. Criminal penalties.
Sec. 330. International cooperation in investigations of money laundering, financial crimes, and the finances of terrorist groups.
Subtitle B--Bank Secrecy Act Amendments and Related Improvements
Sec. 351. Amendments relating to reporting of suspicious activities.
Sec. 352. Anti-money laundering programs.
Sec. 353. Penalties for violations of geographic targeting orders and certain recordkeeping requirements, and lengthening effective period of geographic targeting orders.
Sec. 354. Anti-money laundering strategy.
Sec. 355. Authorization to include suspicions of illegal activity in written employment references.
Sec. 356. Reporting of suspicious activities by securities brokers and dealers; investment company study.
Sec. 357. Special report on administration of bank secrecy provisions.
Sec. 358. Bank secrecy provisions and activities of United States intelligence agencies to fight international terrorism.
Sec. 359. Reporting of suspicious activities by underground banking systems.
Sec. 360. Use of authority of United States Executive Directors.
Sec. 361. Financial crimes enforcement network.
Sec. 362. Establishment of highly secure network.
Sec. 363. Increase in civil and criminal penalties for money laundering.
Sec. 364. Uniform protection authority for Federal Reserve facilities.
Sec. 365. Reports relating to coins and currency received in nonfinancial trade or business.
Sec. 366. Efficient use of currency transaction report system.
Subtitle C--Currency Crimes and Protection
Sec. 371. Bulk cash smuggling into or out of the United States.
Sec. 372. Forfeiture in currency reporting cases.
Sec. 373. Illegal money transmitting businesses.
Sec. 374. Counterfeiting domestic currency and obligations.
Sec. 375. Counterfeiting foreign currency and obligations.
Sec. 376. Laundering the proceeds of terrorism.
Sec. 377. Extraterritorial jurisdiction.
Subtitle A--Protecting the Northern Border
Sec. 401. Ensuring adequate personnel on the northern border.
Sec. 402. Northern border personnel.
Sec. 403. Access by the Department of State and the INS to certain identifying information in the criminal history records of visa applicants and applicants for admission to the United States.
Sec. 404. Limited authority to pay overtime.
Sec. 405. Report on the integrated automated fingerprint identification system for ports of entry and overseas consular posts.
Subtitle B--Enhanced Immigration Provisions
Sec. 411. Definitions relating to terrorism.
Sec. 412. Mandatory detention of suspected terrorists; habeas corpus; judicial review.
Sec. 413. Multilateral cooperation against terrorists.
Sec. 414. Visa integrity and security.
Sec. 415. Participation of Office of Homeland Security on Entry-Exit Task Force.
Sec. 416. Foreign student monitoring program.
Sec. 417. Machine readable passports.
Sec. 418. Prevention of consulate shopping.
Subtitle C--Preservation of Immigration Benefits for Victims of Terrorism
Sec. 421. Special immigrant status.
Sec. 422. Extension of filing or reentry deadlines.
Sec. 423. Humanitarian relief for certain surviving spouses and children.
Sec. 424. `Age-out' protection for children.
Sec. 425. Temporary administrative relief.
Sec. 426. Evidence of death, disability, or loss of employment.
Sec. 427. No benefits to terrorists or family members of terrorists.
Sec. 428. Definitions.
Sec. 501. Attorney General's authority to pay rewards to combat terrorism.
Sec. 502. Secretary of State's authority to pay rewards.
Sec. 503. DNA identification of terrorists and other violent offenders.
Sec. 504. Coordination with law enforcement.
Sec. 505. Miscellaneous national security authorities.
Sec. 506. Extension of Secret Service jurisdiction.
Sec. 507. Disclosure of educational records.
Sec. 508. Disclosure of information from NCES surveys.
Subtitle A--Aid to Families of Public Safety Officers
Sec. 611. Expedited payment for public safety officers involved in the prevention, investigation, rescue, or recovery efforts related to a terrorist attack.
Sec. 612. Technical correction with respect to expedited payments for heroic public safety officers.
Sec. 613. Public safety officers benefit program payment increase.
Sec. 614. Office of Justice programs.
Subtitle B--Amendments to the Victims of Crime Act of 1984
Sec. 621. Crime victims fund.
Sec. 622. Crime victim compensation.
Sec. 623. Crime victim assistance.
Sec. 624. Victims of terrorism.
Sec. 711. Expansion of regional information sharing system to facilitate Federal-State-local law enforcement response related to terrorist attacks.
Sec. 801. Terrorist attacks and other acts of violence against mass transportation systems.
Sec. 802. Definition of domestic terrorism.
Sec. 803. Prohibition against harboring terrorists.
Sec. 804. Jurisdiction over crimes committed at U.S. facilities abroad.
Sec. 805. Material support for terrorism.
Sec. 806. Assets of terrorist organizations.
Sec. 807. Technical clarification relating to provision of material support to terrorism.
Sec. 808. Definition of Federal crime of terrorism.
Sec. 809. No statute of limitation for certain terrorism offenses.
Sec. 810. Alternate maximum penalties for terrorism offenses.
Sec. 811. Penalties for terrorist conspiracies.
Sec. 812. Post-release supervision of terrorists.
Sec. 813. Inclusion of acts of terrorism as racketeering activity.
Sec. 814. Deterrence and prevention of cyberterrorism.
Sec. 815. Additional defense to civil actions relating to preserving records in response to Government requests.
Sec. 816. Development and support of cybersecurity forensic capabilities.
Sec. 817. Expansion of the biological weapons statute.
Sec. 901. Responsibilities of Director of Central Intelligence regarding foreign intelligence collected under Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978.
Sec. 902. Inclusion of international terrorist activities within scope of foreign intelligence under National Security Act of 1947.
Sec. 903. Sense of Congress on the establishment and maintenance of intelligence relationships to acquire information on terrorists and terrorist organizations.
Sec. 904. Temporary authority to defer submittal to Congress of reports on intelligence and intelligence-related matters.
Sec. 905. Disclosure to Director of Central Intelligence of foreign intelligence-related information with respect to criminal investigations.
Sec. 906. Foreign terrorist asset tracking center.
Sec. 907. National Virtual Translation Center.
Sec. 908. Training of government officials regarding identification and use of foreign intelligence.
Sec. 1001. Review of the department of justice.
Sec. 1002. Sense of congress.
Sec. 1003. Definition of `electronic surveillance'.
Sec. 1004. Venue in money laundering cases.
Sec. 1005. First responders assistance act.
Sec. 1006. Inadmissibility of aliens engaged in money laundering.
Sec. 1007. Authorization of funds for dea police training in south and central asia.
Sec. 1008. Feasibility study on use of biometric identifier scanning system with access to the fbi integrated automated fingerprint identification system at overseas consular posts and points of entry to the United States.
Sec. 1009. Study of access.
Sec. 1010. Temporary authority to contract with local and State governments for performance of security functions at United States military installations.
Sec. 1011. Crimes against charitable americans.
Sec. 1012. Limitation on issuance of hazmat licenses.
Sec. 1013. Expressing the sense of the senate concerning the provision of funding for bioterrorism preparedness and response.
Sec. 1014. Grant program for State and local domestic preparedness support.
Sec. 1015. Expansion and reauthorization of the crime identification technology act for antiterrorism grants to States and localities.
Sec. 1016. Critical infrastructures protection.
Any provision of this Act held to be invalid or unenforceable by its terms, or as applied to any person or circumstance, shall be construed so as to give it the maximum effect permitted by law, unless such holding shall be one of utter invalidity or unenforceability, in which event such provision shall be deemed severable from this Act and shall not affect the remainder thereof or the application of such provision to other persons not similarly situated or to other, dissimilar circumstances.


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